ANTI-FEDERALIST ESSAY BRUTUS #1 SUMMARY

It is true this government is limited to certain objects, or to speak more properly, some small degree of power is still left to the states, but a little attention to the powers vested in the general government, will convince every candid man, that if it is capable of being executed, all that is reserved for the individual states must very soon be annihilated, except so far as they are barely necessary to the organization of the general government. If it has its defects, it is said, they can be best amended when they are experienced. And why are we surprised when the rancor and vitriol in politics gets worse and worse all the time? The powers given by this article are very general and comprehensive, and it may receive a construction to justify the passing almost any law. Besides, it is a truth confirmed by the unerring experience of ages, that every man, and every body of men, invested with power, are ever disposed to increase it, and to acquire a superiority over every thing that stands in their way. One, consolidated, national government is dangerous in a country as big as America!

In a large republic there are men of large fortunes, and consequently of less moderation; there are trusts too great to be placed in any single subject; he has interest of his own; he soon begins to think that he may be happy, great and glorious, by oppressing his fellow citizens; and that he may raise himself to grandeur on the ruins of his country. Or in other words, whether the thirteen United States should be reduced to one great republic, governed by one legislature, and under the direction of one executive and judicial; or whether they should continue thirteen confederated republics, under the direction and control of a supreme federal head for certain defined national purposes only? And are by this clause invested with the power of making all laws, proper and necessary , for carrying all these into execution; and they may so exercise this power as entirely to annihilate all the state governments, and reduce this country to one single government. Government power and individual rights. Among the many illustrious authorities which might be produced to this point, I shall content myself with quoting only two. Not only the opinion of the greatest men, and the experience of mankind, are against the idea of an extensive republic, but a variety of reasons may be drawn from the reason and nature of things, against it.

You may solace yourselves with the idea, that society, in this favored land, will fast advance to the highest point of perfection; the human mind will expand in knowledge and virtue, and the golden age be, in some measure, realized.

Government power and individual rights.

Brutus (Antifederalist)

But if, on the other hand, this form of government contains principles that will lead to the subversion of liberty — if it tends to establish a despotism, or, what is worse, a tyrannic aristocracy; then, if you adopt it, this only remaining assylum for liberty will be shut up, and posterity will execrate your memory. It is true this government is limited to certain objects, or to speak more properly, some small degree of power is still left to the states, but a little attention to the powers vested in the general government, will convince every candid man, that if it is capable of being executed, all that is reserved for the individual states must very soon be annihilated, except so far as they are barely necessary to the organization of the general government.

Is it practicable for a country, so large and so numerous as they will soon become, to elect a representation, that will speak their sentiments, without their becoming so numerous as to be incapable of transacting public business?

So, to the founding fathers, the idea of a republic was really a representative democracy and Brutus here is questioning, look, if you’re governing over such a vast territory, can you have a representation that will truly speak the sentiments of the people and if you do have true representation of the people, well, are you going to have so many representatives and so many interests that they’re not going to be able to govern?

  DISSERTATION SEBASTIAN KOWAL

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

The former are ruled by the will of the whole, expressed in any manner they may agree upon; the latter by the will of one, or a few. He’s saying hey, there’s going to be so many views. Though I am of opinion, that it is a sufficient objection to this government, to reject it, that it creates the whole union into one government, under the form of a republic, yet if this objection was obviated, there are exceptions to it, which are so material and fundamental, that they ought to determine every man, who is a friend to the liberty and happiness of mankind, not to adopt it.

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

It is proper here to remark, that the authority to lay and collect taxes is the most important of any power that can be granted; it connects with it almost all other powers, or at least will in process of time draw all other after it; it is the great mean of protection, security, and defense, in a good government, and the great engine of oppression and tyranny in a bad one.

The confidence which the people have in their rulers, in a free republic, arises from their knowing them, from their being responsible to them for their conduct, and from the power they have of displacing them when they misbehave: Is it practicable for a country, so large and so numerous as they will soon become, to elect a representation, that will speak their sentiments, without their becoming so numerous as to be incapable of transacting public business?

This central government has so much power that it kind of makes the states a little bit irrelevant because they can’t do something outside of what the central government thinks they should so, so then having established this argument and once again, this is just an excerpt, I encourage you to read all of Brutus I, it’s quite fascinating, the author then argues why this is a bad idea to have this takeover and have 13 sovereign states turned into essentially one.

In a small one, the interest of the public is easier perceived, better understood, and more within the reach of every citizen; abuses are of less extent, and of course are less protected.

One of the main objections to the Constitution argued by Brutus is the immense power of the federal government which requires the people to sacrifice their liberties.

Esway in other words, whether the thirteen United States should be reduced to one great republic, governed by one legislature, and under the direction of one executive and judicial; or whether they anri-federalist continue thirteen confederated republics, under the direction and control of a supreme federal head for certain defined national purposes only?

In a free republic, although all laws are derived from the consent of the people, yet the people do not declare their consent by themselves in person, but by representatives, chosen by them, who are supposed to know the minds of their constituents, and to be possessed of integrity to declare this mind. There are many objections, of small moment, of which I shall take no notice — perfection is not to be expected in any thing that is the production of man — and if I did not in my conscience believe that this scheme was defective in the fundamental principles — in the foundation upon which a free and anti-federalits government must rest — I would hold my peace.

In a republic, the manners, sentiments and interests of the people should be similar. The powers of the anti-federwlist legislature extend to every case that is of the least importance — there is nothing valuable to human nature, nothing dear to freemen, but what is within its essxy.

  EVISU X CLOT CASE STUDY 001

Menu Skip to content.

The first question that presents itself on the subject is, whether a confederated government be the best for the United States or not? The body of the people being attached, the government will always be sufficient to support and execute its laws, and to operate upon the fears of any faction which may be opposed to it, not only to prevent an opposition brutuss the execution of the laws themselves, but also to compel the most of them to aid the magistrate; but the people will not be likely to have such confidence in eesay rulers, in a republic so extensive as the United States, as necessary for these purposes.

The judicial power of the United States is to be vested in a supreme court, and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser.

Web by JawDrop Design. The first question that presents itself on the subject is, whether a confederated government be the best for the United States or not? In a large republic there are men of large fortunes, and consequently of less moderation; there are trusts too great to be placed in any single subject; he has interest of his own; he soon begins to think that he may be happy, great and glorious, by oppressing his fellow citizens; and that he may raise himself to grandeur on the ruins of his country.

If the constitution, offered to [your acceptance], be a wise one, calculated vrutus preserve the invaluable blessings of liberty, to secure the inestimable rights of mankind, and promote human happiness, then, if you accept it, you will lay a lasting foundation of happiness for millions yet unborn; generations to come will rise up and call you blessed.

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

The powers of the general legislature, so they’re talking about what will eventually be the US Congress as proposed by the constitution extend to every case that is of the least importance, there is nothing valuable to human nature, nothing dear to freemen, but what is within its power.

The laws and customs of the several states are, in many respects, very diverse, and in some opposite; each would be in favor anti-fereralist its own interests and customs, and, of consequence, a legislature, formed of representatives from the respective parts, would not only be too numerous to act with any care or decision, but would be composed of such heterogenous and discordant principles, as would constantly be contending with each other.

The Anti-Federalist Papers: Brutus I | Tara Ross

And you have an idea of an elite democracy where the people are still sovereign but they’re being represented by a nrutus, limited group of I guess you could say elite, maybe more wealthy, more educated folks who are trying or should be acting in the interests of the citizens. In a republic of such vast extent as the United-States, the legislature cannot attend to the various concerns and wants of its different parts. One inferior court must be established, I presume, in each state, at least, with the necessary executive officers appendant thereto.

The true identity of Brutus is unknown, but modern scholarship has suggested both Melancton Smith of Poughkeepsie [2] and John Williams of Salem.