As a result Germany was left without a tradition of successful revolutions and a history of top-down reforms. These included the authoritarian outlook and antiproletarian claims of the petty bourgeoise as well as militaristic elements of middle-class political culture, such as the institution of the “reserve officer”. These pressures created a crisis of sovereignty that erupted first in the Balkans with the attempt to create states based on a fusion of nation and territory—a task impossible to accomplish without destroying the existing political order. Recognizing the importance of modernizing forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus. The Peculiarities of German History: Yet these visions and practices of hegemony involved an expressly unequal economic union that would exploit the resources and markets of eastern Europe, not a war of destruction.

Out of its exaggerated perspectives and, I would add, rhetoric it become a power in politics, out of a mythic reality. Click here to sign up. Poland during the First World War shows an important and little-studied case of a German military regime that refrained from excessive violence for a sustained period of time. The Crisis of German Ideology: No German recognized the Czechs or Poles as equals. The Case of the German Sonderweg. In the United States particularly the story of a dangerous intellectual development throughout the centuries that led to National Socialism became very prominent.

Tag: Sonderweg

During the latter half of the Second Reich, from about tothis pride, they argued, developed into hubris. Hans Rosenberg and others argued that preindustrial elites, especially the east Elbian landowners the Junkersupper-level civil servants and the officer corps retained great power and influence well into the twentieth century.

The General Government was to exist next to the Reich and to be, at least initially, a kind of Polish reservation. The devastating defeat in the First World War left German confidence in tatters. The German Foreign Ministry remained worried about overly aggressive annexations and the international implications of destroying a Polish state that would also be needed to sign a peace treaty.


Entry for 10 Nov. In response, Heinrich August Winkler argued that there was a Thessis beforeand that Germany as a country deeply influenced by the Enlightenment meant there was no point of comparison between Hitler on one hand, and Pol Pot and Stalin on the other [19]. The liberal Max Weber criticized the “feudalization” of the upper bourgeoisie, which seemed to accept both the germzn representation of the nobility in politics as well as aristocratic norms and practices instead of striving for power on its own terms or cultivating a distinctly middle-class culture.

Sonderweg – Wikipedia

The French historian Edmond Vermeil wrote in his book L’Allemagne contemporaine “Contemporary Germany” that Nazi Germany was not “a purely adventitious episode appearing on the fringes of the German tradition” [6] Instead, Vermeil contended that German nationalism had an especially aggressive character, which had been restrained only by Bismarck. Drawing on Prussian models, the Government-General created two institutions in the cities: Many of these accounts tried Articles germaan German-language text Articles containing French-language text Articles containing Latin-language text Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April Articles with weasel words from April Articles containing Japanese-language text Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.

german sonderweg thesis

Although the initiative came from Greiser, 97 the thhesis of the name was highlighted as a decision made by Hitler himself. Marketing, Konsum und Produktbilder des Automobils nach dem Boom. California library reprint series.

Feindbild und Traumland Darmstadt, These ideas, they tried to integrate at home thus triggering off the debate on the synchronization of their countries with the West. Fred Taylor London,pp.

Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary. On linear time and history, see Fernand Braudel, On Historytrans. The German occupation of eastern Europe during the First World War cannot just be read as a less intense precursor of what was later to come when the Nazis arrived. The liberal university professors, Metternich’s fiercest foes and now so prominent inwere often far from the cloudy idealists pictured in our textbooks.


As a result Germany was left without a tradition of successful revolutions and a history of top-down reforms. As part of this coup, the PPS insurgents began to confiscate German arms which were, with very few exceptions, handed over without a fight. The leading critics of the Sonderweg thesis have been two British Marxist historians, Geoff Eley and David Blackbournwho in their book The Peculiarities of German History first published in German in as Mythen deutscher Geschichtsschreibung: Germany and the East, — Ithaca,p.

In the Polish case, the more emphasis the idea of the synchronization with the West received, the more dramatic was the impression that Polish realm was anomalous in relation to the same West.

german sonderweg thesis

Three of the basic developmental problems of modern societies showed themselves at the same time only in Germany. Berthold Puchert Berlin,p.

Imitation, Adaptation, and Synchronism with the West: Bijna twintig jaar geleden ontstond er in de academische wereld en daarbuiten enorme ophef over een boek geschreven door de Amerikaanse wetenschapper Daniel Jonah Goldhagen. Poliakov wrote that even if not all Germans supported the Holocaust, it was “tacitly accepted by the popular will” [16].

Harvard University Press, Men over the age sondeeweg twenty-five would be allowed to vote in the elections. Such power in the hands of the state blocked parliament from functioning, provided effective services to the people, and weakened middle class liberalism. Some core germzn of the Sonderweg have been supported, though, through recent research in three ways: The problem this posed for their policy is nicely captured in a letter that Beseler wrote to his wife in