LITERATURE REVIEW HFMD

Incubation period 3—5 days Initial fever, headache, and malaise Sore throat and mouth Vesicular rash develops after 1—2 days, beginning as a red macule and then progressing to vesicles Vesicles present on hands, palms, and soles, and less commonly on limbs, buttocks, and genitals Lesions resolve in 3—5 days and heal without scarring Virus is excreted in feces and saliva for several weeks, and children are infectious until blisters have disappeared. Support Center Support Center. Study of the clinical and laboratory features of hand-foot-mouth disease. China [ 38 ]. Maculopapular lesions were found on hands and feet. No significant association between the center of care and disease presentation.

Study of the clinical and laboratory features of hand-foot-mouth disease. Shaoxing, China [ 43 ]. The examination also found maculopapular lesions on the hands and feet, some of which were in the form of blisters Figs. Several lines of research suggest that the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 SCARB2 plays a crucial role in EV71 infection and later development into severe forms of the disease [ 44 ]. The patient had a body mass index of A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

Feder et al Due to multiple pathogenic compositions, enteroviral recombination, co-infection, spreading and the lack of an effective vaccine, outbreaks of the infection can persist for a long time. Conclusions Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease.

Central serous retinopathy and hand–foot–mouth disease: coincidence or causation?

A study by Hii et al. Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Characterization of an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Nanchang, China in HLA-A33, which is a common phenotype in Asian populations but is rare in white populations, was most significantly associated with enterovirus 71 infection, compared with the other candidate genes studied, whereas HLA-A2 was significantly related to cardiopulmonary failure.

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The requirement for research and evaluation into this emerging occupational hazard area is necessary for improved prevention, management, and treatment strategies to be developed. Background InRobinson literatture al. Microbiological results inconclusive Davia et al. China [ 38 ].

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

We found articles, which were subsequently reduced to 52 documents after applying the inclusion criteria. Prevention and management strategies Outbreaks, severe disease, and case reports of spread of the disease to immunocompetent adults has prompted the WHO to produce a guide for clinical management and public health response.

He presented to the emergency department and was referred to the local optometrist for investigation.

Characteristically, they appear on the sides and back of the fingers, around the nails, around the heel and on the palm of the hand hfmx soles of the feet. Namely, induction of cellular and humoral immunity should be considered when developing vaccines and further analyzed in clinical trials [ 44 ]. The biological relationship between climate indicators and EV activity is quite complicated and different reports on the subject do not reveal the same results, so it deserves to be investigated in future studies to get better information on this relationship [ 229 ].

HLA-A33 is associated with susceptibility to enterovirus 71 infection. Data from Murtagh and Rosenblatt. More studies are lliterature in this regard Zeng et al.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

We included 26 of the 52 total papers as a systematic review, based in the number of cases presented and type of studies, and addressing the issues developed: He had an unremarkable medical history, except childhood asthma and mild atopic associations. China [ 38 ] HFMD cases.

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literature review hfmd

The full terms of this literqture are available at https: Coxsackievirus A6-induced hand-foot-mouth disease. The results suggest that seasonal variations, geographic localization, person to-person contact and contaminated water could be the principal piterature of transmission of HFMD. Discussion HFMD is a syndrome caused by intestinal viruses from the Picornaviridae family, and is mainly characterized by the appearance of vesicular lesions on the mouth, hands and feet.

Ocular complications Ocular complications, in particular central serous retinopathies associated with HFMD, have been reported sporadically in the literature, making this case report unique. Dominant EV71 circulation led to the outbreak of HFMD and the occurrence of severe and fatal cases in China EV71 is associated predominantly with severe cases of the disease.

HFMD is a syndrome caused by intestinal viruses from the Picornaviridae family, and is mainly characterized by the appearance of vesicular lesions on the mouth, hands and feet.

Sex As for sex, recent liteerature suggest a higher prevalence in males than in females [ 42630 ]. Study of the clinical and laboratory features of hand-foot-mouth disease. Consent Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication reviee this case report and any accompanying images.

literature review hfmd

Improved surveillance in both the primary care liteerature emergency care settings would provide increased knowledge regarding the incidence, demographics, and occurrence of both atypical presentations and unusual complications. Background Occupational exposure to infectious diseases is well described in the literature; however, specific considerations for hand—foot—mouth disease HFMD in childcare centers has limited evidence.

literature review hfmd


LITERATURE REVIEW HFMD

Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot and mouth disease: We found articles, which were subsequently reduced to 52 documents after applying the inclusion criteria. The mixture of asymptomatic infected children in school might have contributed to the spread of infection. Tokyo, Japan [ 53 ]. Several lines of research suggest that the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 SCARB2 plays a crucial role in EV71 infection and later development into severe forms of the disease [ 44 ].

Australia and New Zealand have also reported outbreaks of HFMD in recent years; however, it is difficult to determine the frequency at which outbreaks may be occurring, as this disease is not notifiable to any public health unit. The patient reported he had had contact with a child diagnosed with HFMD. The patient reported he had had contact with a child diagnosed with HFMD. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. McGraw Hill Education;

literature review hfmd

Methods and results A literature review was performed via an automated search for information on the database: In the case we presented, up to four adults who were in direct contact with the infected child suffered from the disease, as in the case described by Shin et al. Clinical record A year-old male Caucasian refrigeration mechanic presented to his general practitioner with initial symptoms of severe sore throat ulcerations visiblemild fever, malaise, and body aches.

Feder et al The pathogenic connection between the two illnesses has limited evidence in the literature; however, this presents an unusual case for consideration. Namely, induction of cellular and humoral immunity should be considered when developing vaccines and further analyzed in clinical trials [ 44 ]. litedature

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Central serous retinopathy and hand–foot–mouth disease: coincidence or causation?

On another note, the HFMD patient is potentially contagious for the duration of the initial symptoms, until the vesiculobullous skin lesions disappear. Background InRobinson et al. He presented to the emergency department and was referred litedature the local optometrist for investigation.

Microbiological results inconclusive Davia et al. HLA-A2 was associated with the development of cardiopulmonary failure. Best practices to prevent transmission and control outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in childcare facilities: A At 3 days after initial symptom presentation; B at 12 days after initial symptom presentation.

The mixture of asymptomatic infected children in school might have contributed to the spread of infection. Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children in Shanghai — The main routes of transmission are person-to-person through oral-pharyngeal secretions or by direct vesicle contactvia contaminated water fecal-oral route [ 12 ], and via contaminated objects.

Update on hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Murtagh J, Rosenblatt J. Beijing, China [ 32 ]. Skin lesions, in our case, appeared on the sides and backs of the fingers and toes of our patient, and appeared in the locations described elsewhere.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

Saab M, Ullal J. Serum microRNA expression profile distinguishes enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus 16 infections in patients with hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

literature review hfmd

Int Med Case Rep J. High incidence of EV However it is the most common infectious disease in China, with an incidence rate of around ,—1, cases per year [ 2 ]. The general practitioner initially diagnosed a bacterial throat infection and prescribed amoxicillin mg three times daily for 5 days. Outbreak of variant hand-foot-and-mouth bfmd caused by coxsackievirus A6 in Auckland, New Zealand: The patient regularly entered the childcare center to drop off and pick up his child.

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A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

A confirmed diagnosis at first visit to hospital can significantly decrease the risk of severe HFMD Chen et al. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. Risk factors for severe hand foot and mouth disease. Effects of public health interventions in reducing transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

Reivew, China [ 26 ]. Discussion of management strategies for this workplace, its staff, and visitors is also included. He had an unremarkable medical history, except childhood asthma and mild atopic associations. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

The results suggest a strong association between HFMD and climate changes.