It has a low to moderate toxicity, but may be synergistic with other naturally occurring mycotoxins such as kojic acid and fumonisins when injected directly into fertile chicken eggs or insect larvae Dowd ; Bacon et al. Owing to the high demand for this product and the high consumption rate, it is thought that the present traditional production process is outdated, inefficient, time consuming and with product quality varying between batches. H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, parasites, and viruses are more likely to contaminate foods most especially ready to eat food. The micro flora of the finished product depends on the processing and storage conditions, this has lead to the inability to produce and store fresh kunu. This paste is then divided into two parts. Other factors include insects, rodents or pests presents in the environment during the preparation, temperature, time and light.

It is also possible that kunu drink can also be contaminated by fungi through potential presence of associated mycotoxins. The data presented here corroborate a previous study which listed aflatoxins Reddy et al. The processed Kunu is usually packed for sale either in plastic bottles or in large containers and distributed under ambient temperature or cooled in a refrigerator where available. Review of personal essay proofreading websites uk Literature. In addition, OTA also occurs in wheat, barley, rye, corn, soy, peanuts, rice, oats, and cassava flour Zain, ; CAST, and in several food of animal origins Peraica et al. Kunu is a traditional non-alcoholic fermented beverage widely consumed in the Northern parts of Nigeria especially during the dry season Adeyemi and Umar, It is also known to reduce the risks associated with diabetes.

literature review on kunun zaki

However, it is unknown what factors determine why field fungi primarily develop on the standing crop while storage species became dominant in store. ZEA is renowned for its detrimental effect to the urogenital system in animal species as well as neuroendocrine disruption by binding to estrogen receptors Richard, Briefly, One part of the coconut meat was homogenized in two part of hot distilled water.


literature review on kunun zaki

Pramoda, Grain sorghum and maize are comparable in costs of production and in nutrition, therefore the growing environment is the largest determining factor for choosing which to grow. Kunu processing is mostly done by women using simple household equipment and utensil.

Literature review of kunu zaki

These high-tannin sorghums are still grown where birds could cause significant losses Wikipedia, 2. Aflatoxins are the most common and probably the most significant mycotoxin in terms of human and animal health risk Bluma and Etcheverry, Therefore it becomes very necessary to conduct this research to determine the microbial load, nutritional and microbiological qualities of this non-alcoholic drink reviea Kunu-Zaki in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State.

Likewise, DON found in rye, rice, oat, barley as well as in safflower seeds and mixed feeds Pestka et al.

literature review on kunun zaki

Salmonella, Escherichia coli Among the Alternaria metabolites, Macrosporin was present in two of the samples, with a maximum value of 3. The major effects of storage fungi on grain, including discoloration, losses in germination, caking, nutritional changes, heating, and mustiness, musty odors.

Dried stalks are used for cooking fuel, and dye can be extracted from the plant to color leather. The kumun of Kunu zaki cereal beverage from Northern Nigeria during the fermentation production process. Non-alcoholic beverages play a very important role in the dietary pattern of people in developing countries like Nigeria.

Literature review on kunun zaki

Pure colonies were observed morphologically before being stored in sterile 2ml vial tubes containing 1ml of sterile water. Also found azki reduce the milk in dairy cattle Akande et al.

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by many filamentous fungi and contaminated various agricultural commodities in pre-harvest, harvest, post-harvest and in storage conditions Kumar et al. Likewise, in cows, ZEA has been linked to infertility, reduced milk roduction and hyperestrogenism Zinedine et al.

In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The preparation of this beverage has kununn technology in many homes in the rural communities and more recently in the literaturf areas where commercial production due to support from the government through the poverty alleviation scheme, has helped to alleviate poverty among the people. The additive that is used is sweet potatoes; it contains essential amino acid and is a rich source of vitamins Osuntogun and Aboaba, Fumonism was first isolated and identified in South Africa in the late s Gelderblom et al.


Aflatoxins are of great concern due to their detrimental effects on the health of humans and animals Zinedine and Manes, Data compiled from various sources by Mark W.

It is a staple beverage drink that is relatively cheap and nutritious when compared to carbonated drinks Adejuyitan et al. Zakii on cereal availability, Sorghum, Maize, millet, Gunea corn or rice are commonly used for kunu preparation. Some of these foods that originates from plant includes non alcoholic beverages made mostly from cereal grains.

Sorghum is used for human nutrition all over the world. The quality of the drinks depends on the raw materials and the hygiene of the personnel, water and the production environment.

Literature review on kunun zaki

Sterigmatocystin was occasionally reported to occur in green coffee beans, spices, nuts and beer EFSA It can also be sweetened with honey together with small quantity of sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and cadaba farinose crude extract. Currently, over different mycotoxins have been identified; In general, mycotoxins are categorized by fungal species, structure, and mode of action Darwish, et al.

These effects are associated with decreases in food intake, inhibits ceramide synthesis and disruption ofsphingolipid metabolism Smith et al.

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